Indian Journal of Paediatric Dermatology

: 2022  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 24--27

Terminology in trichology

Ashish Singh 
 Department of Dermatology, Skin Glow Clinic, Sultanpur, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Singh
Skin Glow Clinic, Near Khoa Mandi, Sultanpur - 228 001, Uttar Pradesh


“Terminology in Trichology” is a concise guide to the essential language of trichology. It has been written with the aim of making readers aware of commonly used terms in trichology. It has been structured in such a way that it should prove useful to the postgraduates and practicing dermatologists and trichologists. Terms are explained in simple language so that they are easy to understand, without including excessive details.

How to cite this article:
Singh A. Terminology in trichology.Indian J Paediatr Dermatol 2022;23:24-27

How to cite this URL:
Singh A. Terminology in trichology. Indian J Paediatr Dermatol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Jan 16 ];23:24-27
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Full Text


Term: Connotation

Acne keloidalis nuchae:[1] Scarring folliculitis producing a keloid-like mass mostly on the occipital area.

Alopecia:[2] Loss of hair.

Alopecia adnata:[2] Less developed eye lashes.

Alopecia areata:[3] Noncicatricial alopecia that occurs as a patchy, confluent, or diffuse pattern.

Alopecia congenitalis: Complete alopecia since birth.

Alopecia marginalis: Alopecia of hair line.

Alopecia medicamentosa: Alopecia, secondary to some medication.

Alopecia mucinosa: Follicular mucinosis with alopecia over the scalp and beard area with erythema and edema.

Alopecia totalis: Complete alopecia over the scalp.

Alopecia toxica:[4] Loss of hair secondary to febrile illness.

Alopecia universalis: Loss of hair all over the body.

Anagen: Growth phase of hair cycle.

Anagen effluvium: Loss of anagen hairs.

Atrichia: Congenital or acquired absence of hair.

Beaded hair: Hair with alternate constriction and swelling. Found in monilethrix.

Bubble hair: Air spaces in hair cortex (indicates thermal injury).

Burrowing hair: Hair growing horizontally under the skin.

Canities: Graying of hairs.

Carvajal syndrome:[5] Syndrome characterized by wooly hair, striate palmoplantar keratoderma, and dilated left ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Catagen: Involution phase of hair cycle.

Dermoscope: Instrument used for surface microscopy of hair.

Ectropion: Eversion of eye lashes.

Elejalde disease:[6] Neuroectodermal melanolysosomal disorder characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and hypotonia.

Skin manifestations include silvery hair and bronze coloration of the sun-exposed areas and hypopigmentation of nonexposed areas.

Entropion: Inversion of eye lashes.

Exclamation point hair: A hair with atrophy and attenuation of the bulb.

Exogen: Phase of hair cycle showing hair fall.

Female pattern hair loss:[7] Also known as female androgenetic alopecia. It is characterized by diffuse hair thinning over the central scalp, while the frontal hairline is usually retained.

Follicular occlusion tetrad:[8] It consists of acne congoblata, hidadrenitis suppurativa, pilonidal sinus, and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

Follicular occlusion triad:[9] It consists of acne congoblata, hidadrenitis suppurativa, and dissecting cellulitis of the scalp.

Folliculitis decalvans:[10] Small follicular papules and pustules with perifollicular erythema, spreading peripherally and leaving central patches of scarring alopecia.

Frey's hair: Used for testing sensitiveness at pressure point.

Graham Little syndrome:[11] Triad of lichenoid follicular eruption, cicatricial alopecia of the scalp, and nonscarring alopecia of the pubis and axillae.

Hair brain syndrome: Characterized by brittle hair, nail dystrophy, cataract, sexual infantilism, dwarfism, and physical and mental growth delay.

Heterochromia:[12] Growth of different colors of hairs in one person.

Hirsutism:[13] Male pattern growth of terminal body hair in women in androgen-stimulated locations such as face, chest, and areolae.

Hypertrichophobia: Fear of excessive hair on body.

Hypertrichophrydia: Thickened eyebrows.

Hypertrichosis: Excessive growth of hairs secondary to endocrine disorders.

Hypotrichosis: Less hair over scalp or body.

Ingrown hairs: A hair that re-enters the skin.

Kenogen:[14] Physiological interval between two hair cycles.

Lanugo hair: Hairs covering the body of fetus.

Lipedematous alopecia:[15] Lipedematous scalp with hair growth abnormalities such as alopecia and short broken hair.

Lipedematous scalp:[15] Boggy swelling of the skin scalp due to increased subcutaneous layer thickness.

Loose anagen syndrome:[16] It is benign and self-limiting condition where anagen hairs can be easily and painlessly extracted.

Madarosis:[2] Loss of eyebrows or loss of eye lashes from a destructive cause.

Male androgenetic alopecia:[17] Symmetric frontoparietal retraction of the hair line with hairs over central part of vertex becoming rarified and thin. Progressive alopecia results in bald spot on the vertex.

Menkes Kinky hair disease:[18] Defective copper absorption leading to sparse, steel, fuzzy, wooly hair along with cerebral degeneration and vascular problems (Syn: trichopolio-dystrophy).

Milphosis:[2] Loss of eye lashes.

Monilethrix:[19] Hair shaft disorder characterized by the presence of nodes and internodes.

Moth eaten alopecia: Alopecia of parietal and frontal area, found in syphilis patients.

Mudi-chood disease:[20] Characterized by the presence of skin-colored, well-defined, coin-shaped, flat-topped, mildly pruritic papules over nape of neck secondary to use of vegetable oils.

Naxos disease:[21] Characterized by wooly hair, palmoplantar keratoderma, and arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia.

Netherton syndrome:[22] Triad of linearis ichthyosis circumflexa, trichorrhexis invaginata, and atopic diathesis.

Photo trichogram:[17] Noninvasive method of examination used to count the number of follicles and percentage of anagen and telogen hairs.

Piedra:[23] Asymptomatic multiple black and white nodules over hair shaft with the hair breaking in bits at the level of nodule.

Ophilis:[24] Type of alopecia areata characterized by loss of hair in of hair, both in length and quantity.

Pili annulati:[25] Hair shaft disorder characterized by banding leading to spangled hair.

Pityriasis amiantacea:[26] Characterized by the presence of plaques with asbestos-like firm adherent scaling over scalp and associated hairs.

Plica neuropathica:[27] Irreversibly entangled hair.

Pressure alopecia: Hair loss secondary to continuous pressure over the scalp.

Pseudopelade of Brocq:[28] Idiopathic, chronic, slowly progressive patchy alopecia without any evidence of inflammation.

Pull test:[29] A test done to assess the severity and location of hair loss.

Radiation alopecia: Hair loss secondary to exposure to radiation.

Stellate hairs: Hair split in multiple parts at their free end.

Sutural alopecia: Alopecia over cranial sutures.

Tonsuring:[30] Cutting the hair especially as a religious rite or custom.

Trichoadenoma: Benign follicular tumor.

Trichoanesthesia: Loss of sensibility of hair.

Trichobezoar:[31] Hair ball in stomach (rarely in duodenum and small bowel - Rapunzel syndrome).

Trichoclasia: Fragility of hair.

Trichocryptosis: Disease of hair follicle.

Trichodiscoma:[32] Hair disc tumor (hamartomas of one of pilar apparatus).

Trichodynia:[33] Discomfort, pain, or paresthesia of scalp related to the complaints of hair loss.

Trichodysplasia spinulosa:[34] Progressive alopecia, friable follicular spinous processes, and erythematous, indurated papules in a immunocompromised person.

Trichoepithelioma:[35] Benign follicular tumor.

Trichoesthesia: Sensation of hair touch.

Trichoesthiometer: Measures sensitivity of hair.

Trichogen: Hair growth enhancer.

Trichoglossia: Hairy tongue.

Trichoglyphics: Study of hair direction patterning.

Trichogram:[29] Used to detect percentage of anagen and telogen hairs and their ratio (Syn: hair pluck test).

Trichoid: Hair like.

Trichologia: A nervous habit of plucking the hair.

Trichology: Study of hair.

Trichomania: Intense fascination with hair.

Trichomegaly:[36] Long eye-lashes.

Trichometry:[37] Measurement of rate of growth of hair.

Trichomycosis: Fungal infection of hair.

Trichonodosis: Knotted hair with cuticular loss.

Trichopathophobia:[38] Anxiety and fear regarding growth, color, or diseases of hair.

Trichophagia:[39] Disorder of hair eating.

Trichophobia: Fear of hair.

Trichoptilosis: Splitting of hair shaft, giving it a feathery look.

Trichoscan:[29] Modified trichogram which uses epiluminescence microscopy for measurement of human hair.

Trichoschisis: Hair shaft break with absence of cuticle at fracture site.

Trichoscope: Instrument used for hair examination.

Trichosis: Any disease of the hair or its abnormal growth or development in an abnormal place.

Trichostasis spinulosa:[40] Slightly raised, small dark follicular spines mainly over nose. Multiple vellus hair is entrapped in the follicle.

Trichoteiromania:[41] Compulsive rubbing of hair leading to loss of hair.

Trichotemnomania:[42] Obsessive–compulsive disorder of cutting or shaving of hair.

Trichotillomania:[4] Irresistible urge to pull out the hair, accompanied by a sense of relief after the hair has been plucked.

Trichotilloteirotemnomania: Combination of trichotillomania, trichoteiromania, and trichotemnomania.

Trichorrhexis invaginata:[43] Also known as bamboo hair. Characterized by hair shaft disorder, producing development of torsion nodules, and invaginated nodules.

Trichorrhexis nodosa:[44] Hair shafts disorder, clinically presenting as minute nodular concretions along the hair shaft.

Trichoschiasis: Transverse fracture of hair shaft with loss of cuticular cells.

Trichothiodystrophy:[45] Sulfur deficient brittle hairs with characteristic tiger tail appearance.

Trichotillometry:[46] Measurement of hair pluck ability.

Trichotrophy: Nourishment of hair.

Vellus hair: Nonpigmented, fine, soft hairs present over most of the body surface.

Uncombable hair syndrome:[47] Hair shaft disease characterized by frizzy, straw-colored hair, which is resistant to combing and brushing.

Wooly hairs:[48] Tightly coiled hair with texture of wool.

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